Verganti makes an attempt to penetrate how design actually works in the traditional sense that stems from architecture. It takes a few reads to understand what he is attempting to reveal when he talks about designers who make “proposals”. He is really describing the process of skillful observation, akin to an artist’s mind, followed by a move (“the proposal”) that attempts to add new meaning to product, such as turning a book case into a method of displaying a book owner’s sophistication. This is what today might be called “Jobs to be Done Theory” which, like all business fads, is a dumbed down interpretation of age-old wisdom. For me, this book is the necessary dipole to “Lean Product” incoherence.